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Last Update: 18 Oct 2019
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For more enquiries, please contact us:
Address :
Department of Agriculture Sarawak, 7 & 12-17th Floor, Menara Pelita,
Jln. Tun Abdul Rahman Yakub, Petra Jaya, 93050 Kuching, Sarawak
Tel. No.: 082-441000   Fax No.: 082-447821
Email :

For more enquiries, please contact us:

Address :

Department of Agriculture Sarawak, 7th, 12-14, 16-17th Floor, Menara Pelita, Jln. Tun Abdul Rahman Yakub, Petra Jaya, 93050 Kuching, Sarawak

Tel. No.:  082-441000  
Fax No.:  082-447639 (Director Office), 
                 082-446039 (Human Resource)

Email : 


Mandarin OrangeMandarin Orange

1. Local Name: Limau langkat, Limau Batu, Limau Jepun

2. Varietal Recommendation

(i) Limau mandarin:

Bidin - Big fruit, sweet and a good yielder

Kong Ho - Good sized fruit, sweet and a heavy yielder

(ii) Mandarin Honey Orange:

Johor Honey - Sweet-sour taste, good aroma and a heavy yielder

3. Spacing: 5.5 m x 5.5 m

4. Planting Material:

Recommended rootstocks are Carrizo citrange and Cleopatra Mandarin.

5. Manuring

Time of Application
Type of Fertilizer

Year (kg)

Rate /
At planting Rock Phosphate
Tahi Ayam
Every 3 months 15:15:15
Every 3 months 15:15:15
Every 3 months 12:12:17:2+TE
Every 4 months 12:12:17:2:TE
Every 4 months 12:12:17:2:TE
6 above
Every 4 months 12:12:17:2:TE

In addition, orgamic manure at 10-30 kg/tree/year and dolomite at 0.2 to 0.3 kg/tree/year is recommended.

6. Pruning

The young trees should be pruned at one year to form an open, well-balanced canopy. Each should have only a single trunk with three or four well-distributed primary branches originating at different points from 30 to 60 cm above ground level.

7. Fruit Thinning

Common practice is to allow one or two fruit per twig, thinned when the fruits are less than marble size.

8. Vegetitative Stage: 3 years

9. Economic Life: 20-25 years

10. Harvesting and Yield

  • 4 - 5 years - yield: 5 - 7 mt/ha/year
  • 8 years and above - yield: 20 - 30 mt/ha/year

11. Pest and Disease Control

Pest / Disease
1. Fruit Fly   Infestation of fruits commences with the female making a punchure in the fruit skin when it lays eggs. The larva feeds inside the fruit causing it to rot.  
  1. Collect and destroy damaged fruits
  2. Bagging of fruits with paper bags
  3. Trapping of fruits with methyl eugenol to reduce the male population
  4. Spray with dimethoate or deltamethrin or fenthion.

2. Psyllid limau

  Both nymph and adult suck sap from young leaves and shoots, resulting in curling of leaves and stnted growth of plants. Honey dew secreted during feeding result in sooty mold. Insect is a vector of citry greening disease.   Spray with dimethoate or malathion during the on-set of new flushes before the fruiting season.
3. Fruit borer   It is common in pomelo. Frass and gummy liquid oozing out are the obvious symptoms on the rind. Attacked fruits fall off prematurely.  
  1. Bagging of fruits
  2. Destroy infested fruits
  3. Spray with pyrethroids, dimethoate, acephate or fenthion

4. Leaf miner

  Newly hatched larvae bore into the epidermal tissue of the leaf and live inside by burrowing silvery coiled mines on them. Damaged leaf is distorted or curled up resulting in stunted growth.  
  1. Pluck infested leaves and destroy
  2. If necessary, spray with petroleum spray oils (e.g D-C.Tron Plus), acephate or diazinon.
5. Citrus Bug   Adults and nymphs suck sap from fruits, young shoots and leaves. Affected fruit turn brown at points of feeding and drop prematurely. Shoots wilt and shrivel.  
  1. Hand pick the nymphs
  2. Spray with acephate or dimethoate or fenthion if necessary.
6. Lemon Caterpillar   Larva eats up a leaf in a few minutes leaving only the midrib. Feeding impairs growth of young plants.  

Hand pick and destroy

Spray with any common insecticide if necessary

7. Aphid   They suck sap from young shoots causing yellowing and curling or distorted growth.   Spray with malathion and albomineum.

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Source: Scheme Mechanics, 9MP (2006-2010) Fruit Industry Development Programme, June 2006